All Are Alike Unto God: A Reaction to Margaret Blair Young and Aidan Darius Gray’s _Standing On the Promises_ Series

One More River to CrossSome books move you beyond simple reading enjoyment and lift you to a higher emotional experience. Some books engage you so fully intellectually that your mind is buzzing a hundred miles per hour long after you’ve turned the last page. Margaret Blair Young and Darius Aidan Gray’s Standing On the Promises series goes far beyond either of those reactions. After placing the last volume down last night, I was filled with the Spirit of God. These books about the African-American-Mormon experience spurred a powerful spiritual experience that is not easily categorized or dissected.  I originally planned on making this a more traditional, academic “review” of this beautiful series. However, after finishing the series last night, I knew I had to make this more personal, as I had a very personal experience with these books. Thus I’m calling this a “reaction,” an exploration of my journey before this book and a spiritiual topography of where the books brought me from there.

I’ve always felt very connected to the marginalized. As a child, I remember choosing a stuffed rabbit at the store that was missing its arm because I knew that no one else would buy it. I felt great love for that disadvantaged toy. As I grew older, and I became interested in comic books, outsider heroes like the X-Men, who were hated because they were different, really resonated with me. I had number of childhood friends who were minorities and, more recently, I have a number of  friends who are specifically African-American. So the subject of Civil Rights, racism, and equality have always had a strong resonance with me from the time I was a young child and realized that people were treated unkindly for the most superficial and unjust of reasons.  

While reading these books, my thoughts often turned to my African-American friends:

 I thought of Mika Julien, who was a very close friend of mine in my old singles ward. I still remember her telling me her frustrations about the attitude many members had that she should marry within her own race. She was embarassed when people would try to set her up with other black Mormons who had nothing else in common with her except the color of their skin.

My thoughts turned to Cat Taylor, a friend from my high school theatre group, whose monologue from A Raisin in the Sun touched and impressed me so deeply that I looked into the play over a decade later and decided to direct it as my first production as a high school drama teacher. I have had my other classes read and watch it as well and it has become one of my favorite plays.

I thought of Cooper Howell, an actor friend from UVU’s Theatre Department. I thought of how appalled I was when a few of our fellow actors in The Tempest  used highly offensive, racist  epithets with him as “jokes.” I asked Cooper about it later and realized that, although he was laughing with them at the time, it was surely no laughing matter in his aching heart.  I also remember how frustrated Cooper became when he felt like he wasn’t able to get the roles he wanted at the department, even in one of my own plays, because he felt that the roles were all written for white people.

I thought of my friend Danor Gerald, one of the best actors I’ve ever known, who has worked in a number of professional film and theater projects. I thought of how proud I have been of Danor and impressed with how much he has been able to accomplish in his career as an actor. He and I have been working on some projects together lately with our friend Jaclyn Hales Lasseter. I don’t know whether he has felt the same, but from the moment I met him, I felt a deep connection and kinship with him.

I thought of  Quiana Arnold, who helped with costumes at UVU Theatre Department, and then afterwards took roles in the Department’s productions of Adam Slee’s Echoes of American Slavery and Carl Arrington’s Queens of Birdland, which, in the latter, Quianna played the powerful role of Tina Turner. She gave the show it’s most powerfully emotional moments.

I thought of many of my students who I currently teach and our production of A Raisin in the Sun last year. I got some complaints from a few students. A few of the caucasian students were miffed that, for our first production as a school, we were doing  a play that so many of the caucasian kids couldn’t get into (although we actually did end up having two non-African-Americans in the cast). I thought of the powerful experience the kids had with the text, even though the production itself was somewhat marred by the antics of an immature cast member. I also thought of how the subtle, and often destructive, race relations and politics that I see working in the microcosmic world my students.

I especially thought of  my friend Aaron Vaught, who has been my best, kindest friend in Arizona. He and his beautiful family live in one of the apartments across from us. In a time where we have been very lonely because of the move here from our previous home in Utah, his family have been a great haven of friendship and kindness for us. I sometimes only half-joke to my wife Anne that we should have an arranged marriage between our son Hyrum and their daughter Sophia. If we lived in a time of arranged marriages, it wouldn’t be a joke at all, for their daughters are absolute sweethearts.

And, more painfully, I thought of my dear friend Jessica LaMay. Jessica is as white as I am, but when she was investigating the Church when we were in high school, it was the Church’s previous race exclusion policy that really provided one of the biggest roadblocks to her joining the Church. I was very involved in the process of her investigating the Church, having been the one to invite her to consider it, and was there when she was taking the missionary discussions. I was thrilled when she had committed to baptism. I felt very personally invested and involved, as I considered her one of my closest friends. However, a week before her baptism she cancelled it, and has been at arm’s length from the Church ever since… and, honestly, I totally understand where she’s coming from.  Bound for Cannan

As I read Standing On the Promises, I re-lived all these memories vividly in my mind. As Young and Gray described the painful experiences of these historical, powerful, African-American Mormons,  it brought even more personal names and faces to my mind.

For those who are not aware of the basis of this series, it tells the historical stories of African-American Mormons. It begins in the days of Joseph Smith and shows how in the pre-Utah days, there was no race exclusion policy in place regarding the priesthood (as one African American Mormon named Elijah Abel received the priesthood from Joseph Smith himself and was ordained a Seventy).  It showed that Joseph Smith championed against slavery publicly when he ran for president, and tenderly cared for the few African-Americans in his own flock privately. That personal care included Jane Manning James, who he and his wife Emma personally invited to live with them when they discovered she had no home to go to, and they later invited her to be sealed to them as their adopted daughter (an offer she didn’t take up at the time, but regretted later).

But after the death of Joseph Smith, race became a hotter and hotter issue in American scoiety (these are the decades leading up to the Civil War). Things changed after the Mormon pioneers were forced to move to Utah and the leadership of Brigham Young implemented the priesthood exlusion for members of African descent. This is when the story starts to get really painful. We see things change from the way they were under Joseph Smith… not perfect, but inclusive, progressive… and then we see the culture of the Saints take a step back. And, frankly, from the context of the story, it had a lot less to do with any supposed revelation from God given to Joseph Smith (for there is no such revelation on this issue, and quite a bit from Joseph Smith that contradicts it), and has a lot more to do with the racist rhetoric which we inherited from the other Protestant Churches at the time, especially the stinking theory of the African race being cursed through Cain and Ham.

I’m not going to lie. A lot of stories in this series shocked and appalled me. When I found out about a lynching happening in early Utah, which I first discovered in Margaret Young’s play I Am Jane, ( and which Margaret Young and Darius Gray deal with again here ) I wanted to scream. I was equally horrified when I read that slavery was allowed in Utah (I simply didn’t realize this, and I’m pretty up on my Mormon history). But the horror became more somber as I realized a lot of that racism remained in Utah through a good deal of the 20th century.

When I read about how the very few black Mormons were treated at BYU and in Utah society even as recently as the 1960s and 1970s (to valiant souls who had already given up so much by joining a Church that excluded them from its priesthood leadership), I was deeply offended and had an uncomfortable rumbling in my soul, as I wanted to scrub away all the injustice and change the history to something more fair. But that’s the thing… I couldn’t. It’s all there, in our history. I can’t ignore it, I can’t pretend it didn’t happen. It’s there, on our permanent record, and we have to learn how to deal with it and make sure that we never allow such a blindspot to go away unchallenged again.

I once was naive enough to believe it was just the priesthood policy that was our issue, but that otherwise Mormons were kind and fair to their fellow human beings, that the policy was a thing that was forced on us, a thing we really didn’t believe deeply in our souls. Of course we knew that God created all people equal. And for many Mormons, I’m sure that was the case. But then it’s been proven to me that many Mormons became very ugly and sinister when it came to race. Their behavior did not live up to their religion. And I’ve had an even more jarring realization as I’ve gotten older that it’s still a problem for some Mormons.

In this supposedly enlightened period of the Church, I have still heard those horrible things that were said to African American friends, I have still heard Church members (even some of my own friends!) denigrate and stereotype other races, I have still seen the subtle and not so subtle racism that exists in many of our attitudes.

And, let me tell you, it’s not just the Mormon Church, and it’s definitely not just religious people, just as it has never been. Among my high school students, among the religious and irreligious, I’m horrified at some of the things they say to and about each other. And, living in Arizona, I’ve seen the stereotypes that are hurled against the Hispanic community among the general population here, especially with the immigation debate becoming so highly concentrated here. Sure, we’ve come a long way in recent decades, especially in the Church, but Zion is still far in the distance.  We have a lot of changes to make before we can deserve the title “pure in heart.” The last mile of the way

But the injustices are only one aspect of these books. The flip side of the coin is the glory that these African-American Mormons had gained in their Lord, Jesus, and the bountiful, spiritual blessings they received in accepting the Restored Gospel… even if many of its less inspired members thought there was no place for them in it. It was inspiring reading about Jane Manning James having a vision of Joseph Smith so clear that she recognized him upon meeting him… after she had walked 800 miles on bloody feet to get to Nauvoo to join the Saints!  

It was equally inspiring reading about Elijah Abel who was Joseph Smith’s personal friend and risked his own life to go help Joseph when he was being captured by his enemies. And it was wonderful to read about this same Elijah Abel being ordained to the priesthood by Joseph Smith himself.

It was spiritually moving to read of Green Flake, a Mormon slave, who remained strong in his chosen faith and continued to be an inspiration as a pioneer in the vanguard company who was honored by black and white Mormons alike.

It was beautiful to read of more modern pioneers like Aidan Darius Gray who, although ostricized by some Mormons for being black, and ostricized by some blacks for being Mormon, stood up for their beliefs and their race and knew that Jesus Christ honored them for their multitude of sacrifices and had exaltation waiting for them.  

It was also wonderful to read that not everyone was blinded by prejudice, and that there were many Mormons, including a large number of its leaders, that were pushing for progress. Joseph Smith. Emma Smith. Eliza Partridge. Joseph F. Smith. Heber Grant. Lucy Gates Bowen. Marion Hanks. David McKay. Gordon Hinckley. Thomas Monson. Boyd Packer. And, of course, Spencer Kimball, whose courageous and inclusive leadership, and humble submission to the Lord’s Spirit, led to the revelation that extended the priesthood to all races. Although they were imperfect people who were still limited by their own culture’s boundaries, it took such visionaries to break off the chains of false tradition and usher in the new revelations of the Lord, a tradition begun in the Church by Joseph Smith himself.  

It’s a rather personal and sacred experience, but I feel prompted to write of a dream I had several years ago. It relates very much to what I’m writing here.  Some people get nervous when other people relate spiritual experiences, but as Mormons I believe we need to be more open with each other about these sort of things, for that is the life blood of the Church… revelation and spiritual gifts. It’s what makes us distinct from so many other faiths.

In this vivid dream, I was being led down a street by a guide, a beautiful, African-American woman. I remember being struck by her beauty, which was characterized not only by her inner warmth, intelligence, and kindness, but also of her outer beauty. She was beautiful, in every sense of the word. And she was Mormon, that much was clear from our conversation as we walked down the street, discussing our faith. Then she led me to a wall, or vision, or panorama… it’s difficult to describe, but I was seeing a number of individuals, all of them African-American. They were from various time periods. But some of them were very angry, seething with the injustice that had been placed upon them. I was confused why I was being shown such anger. After reading and learning all that I have since then I now understand that the anger, and understand that it was justified.

I awoke from that dream with the powerful feeling of the Holy Ghost pervading me. It has stuck with me since then, and I have strived to learn more about African-American history and culture. The Civil Right Movement, the Harlem Rennaissance, Civil War history and pre-Civil War African-American history fascinates (and at times discourages) me. I admire and honor such revolutionary Civil Rights activists as Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, W.E.B. DuBois, Rosa Parks, and Martin Luther King, Jr. I love reading the work of writers and playwrights such as Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Lorraine Hansberry, Maya Angelou, and August Wilson. I love listening to soulfulness of Ragtime, Jazz, the Blues, MoTown, and even some R&B. I have no rhythm, I’m a white boy from Utah, really as white as they come, but the words and sounds and images and passion of the African-American culture has been making its way deep within me for the past several years and have made a deep impact on me.  

And now I can add these beautiful books as part of that journey and exploration of a culture that is not my own, but which has been slowly adopting me in my heart. Standing on the Promises  are beautifully written and a soulful exploration of the tragedies and victories of the race issue in Mormon culture. They have challenged my thinking, while never detracting from the core of my faith. Aidan Darius Gray and Margaret Blair Young have been anxiously engaged with the race issue within the LDS Church for a lot of years now. Go ahead, Google their names. You’ll find documentaries, interviews, articles, plays, and books by them, all dealing with this same issue, striving to tell the neglected African-American-Mormon story. Their names are becoming synonymous with Jane Manning James, Elijah Abel, and Green Flake. What these two novelists/playwrights/filmmakers/activists/pioneers create is beautiful, not only because of its skill and craftsmanship with which these projects have been made, but also because of the sense of mission behind all of it. I do not lightly talk of people being called of God to perform a mission, although I fervently believe that is the case with many people. However, I have no doubt that these two beautiful individuals, Margaret Young and Darius Gray, have a mission. The Spirit pervades their work.     

Some call the Book of Mormon a racist book, because of the division that occurs between the Nephites and Lamanites within its pages. But when you look deeper, you find the opposite message, of how racial tensions destroyed one nation physically and the other culturally, and that only when those two nations cooperated and loved each other, there was lasting peace. I believe it must be the same way within the modern Church, if we’re ever to build any lasting sense of Zion. In the Book of Mormon, the section 4th Nephi tells us about the most lasting peace that ever occurred in the Mormon book of scripture, the time when Zion was truly upon them after Christ’s visit to the Americas:  

And it came to pass that there was no contention in the land, because of the love of God which did dwell in the hearts of the people… There were no robbers, no murderers, neither were there Lamanites, nor any manner of -ites; but they were in one, the children of Christ, and heirs to the Kingdom of God.

And then earlier in the Book of Mormon we have my personal, all-time favorite scripture, which is one of the most clear condemnationsin Holy Writ of prejudice, in all its varieties:

For none of these iniquities come of the Lord; for he doeth that which is good among the children of men; and he inviteth them all to come unto him and partake of his goodness; and he denieth none that come unto him, black and white, bond and free, male and female; and he remembereth the heathen; and all are alike unto God, both Jew and Gentile. (2 Nephi 26:33)

In his memoir Adventures of a Church Historian, Mormon historian Leonard Arrington quotes the past Church President David O. McKay as saying that the priesthood race restriction was a “policy, not a doctrine.” I fully adhere to President McKay’s view on the priesthood restriction, that such division are created by men, not by God. As Nephi stated “none of these iniquities come of the Lord,” and I’m so grateful to literary pioneers such and Margaret Young and Darius Gray who continually remind us of that fact.

12 thoughts on “All Are Alike Unto God: A Reaction to Margaret Blair Young and Aidan Darius Gray’s _Standing On the Promises_ Series”

  1. Thank you, Mahonri, for sending me the link to this moving review. I love reviews like this, indicating that our books have provided a personal journey for a reader. As a fledgling historian, I am aware of things we got wrong in the books (like the fact that we did not know about several other African Americans who held the priesthood pre-1847, for example) and other little things; as a writer, I am always painfully aware of places where the writing hasn’t quite worked, or where we’ve attempted too much. But it is gratifying to see that our work is moving into someone’s heart.
    Right now (after I post this), I will do what I always do on Sundays: write to missionaries in Africa. I have a new one this week, from Kinshasa, Congo. He had been training to be a revolutionary, and had even begun a revolutionary organization on his own–which would give training in violent tactics for community takeovers,or, as he phrases it, “seek war and division in the world instead of peace and unity.” He met the missionaries and was baptized, but continued to work with the revolutionary organization, until his mother said, “I think you must make a choice. You cannot live the gospel and do these things.” He testifies, “I experienced the miracle of forgiveness through the power of the atonement of Jesus CHrist. I know that the Savior lives. he loves each of us.”
    I feel blessed to know so many modern pioneers, who happen to be black, and to be strengthened and often sustained by them. I am grateful that their stories touched Mahonri, and hope to be able to tell more stories as they come to me and to Darius. (Which they do with some constancy.)

  2. Margaret,

    I hope you know I admire the heck out of you!

    Who else had the priesthood besides Elijah Abel and his descendents? Very curious.


  3. Walker Lewis–who was pretty much a branch president in Boston for awhile–a very important figure and one we develop a lot in the revision
    Joseph T. Ball–also extremely active for several years
    Isaac VanMeter
    “Black Pete” (not documented)
    I’m not remembering the other two names. There’s a section in Special Features of our documentary which goes into detail on who these men were, who ordained them, and what positions they served in. (The documentary is Nobody Knows: The Untold Story of Black Mormons.)
    We mention the others besides Walker Lewis in footnotes only, but Lewis had a remarkable heritage and life and deserved a much fuller treatment than we had given him previously. Brigham Young said of him, “We have one of the best elders, an African, in Lowell [Massachusetts].”
    It was also said (by Wilford Woodruff???) that he was “an example for his more whiter brethren.”

  4. indicating that our books have provided a personal journey for a reader — I love those myself — this one included.

    Margaret, I’m going to have to buy another copy of the DVD, my last one having migrated out of the house into other hands and it appears not likely to come back.

  5. Mahonri–Thanks so much for posting this. I read these books awhile back and it was an important journey for me too. Not for your same reasons, but because it was so good to have a more complex treatment of an issue that is so quickly over simplified.

    I also just loved the writing in the books. I’m a sucker for a strong narrative voice and the voice in these books is great. I also really appreciated how thorough the annotations were.

    Margaret and Darius–Thank you for all your tireless work. There is a revised copy in the works, right? When does it come out?

    (Sorry I’m so late with my comment. . .I hope someone has an answer to my question!)

  6. I too read Standing on the Promises and really enjoyed the books. Thank you for your moving review. I do take issue a bit, however,–and correct me if I am misunderstanding you– with your suggestion that the priesthood restriction was a division created by man and not by God.

    Growing up in the LDS faith and now as a mother of two adopted daughters, one from Haiti and one from Liberia, I have struggled in the past with the priesthood race restriction. Since reading “Last Laborer:Thoughts and Reflections of a Black Mormon” by Keith Hamilton, however, I feel differently.

    If you are not familiar with it, it is written by a Black LDS man who was the first Black BYU Law Graduate as well as a Bishop in the San Francisco area. I have done what he suggested and fasted and prayed to know the truth and although I will never understand why the restriction happened, (nor do we know the exact timing) I do know that it was from God, not something that was placed due to racism or other social reasons.

    For the first time I have had a semblance of peace in my heart about it as he discusses how this was not the only time that God has placed restrictions on a group of people. Christ preached to the Jews but not to the Gentiles. It wasn’t until later that the Gentiles received the gospel, and yet nobody cried “racism!” about that.

    I clearly don’t have the space here to go into all of the doctrine in his book, but if you have not read it, I would highly suggest it. His main premise is that God is no respecter of persons, and all are alike unto God, but the restriction was still placed according to God’s will at the time. His book is something I hope to be able to read to my girls someday and discuss together with them. They are two of the most beautiful people you will ever meet and I love them with all my heart. One of my biggest fears has been that they would feel denigrated in some way when they learned about the Priesthood restriction. My oldest already has made comments about feeling not as special as others when we have read stories and watched movies about Rosa Parks, Ruby Bridges and Martin Luther King.When I asked her why, she said it is because she has brown skin. The topic of slavery is a very painful discussion in our home. She has seen pictures of the hatred on the parents’ faces when Ruby Bridges first integrated her school. It rips my heart out for her to have to see that kind of thing, but I can’t sugar coat the past, nor can I totally protect her from the racism she will face in the world every day.

    I want her to feel proud of who she is and know that God truly is no respecter of persons and that she is a beautiful daughter of God. (Whose skin by the way is much more beautiful than mine!) Reading ” Last Laborer” made it so I know I can talk to my daughters in the future about the priesthood restriction and how it was lifted and share gospel truths with them that will speak to their souls and teach them that they are no less than anyone else in this world.

    Read the “Last Laborer”. It will truly change your heart and mind.

  7. I am glad that _Last Laborer_ was something that helped you so much, Heidi. I haven’t read it, but I’m aware of it because the author was the producer (and one of the actors) behind one of the productions of Margaret Blair Young’s play _I Am Jane_, which takes a lot of the same story points as _Standing on the Promises_, but chiefly from Jane Manning James’ point of view. It’s a beautiful play. Him being involved in that production put Keith Hamilton on my radar.

    However, I am familiar with that line of reasoning which you’re mentioning that he takes. I have read similar things before and heard it argued eloquently. And, for all I know, there may be parts of it which have some validity. But to me, and this is just my opinion of course, something’s missing from it. There’s a part of it that’s hollow. I certainly can accept the possibility– the POSSIBILITY– that God has allowed certain restrictions, for whatever reason. Perhaps the people weren’t ready to be accepting, or there needed to be a preparatory group or certain covenants needed to be honored first or whatever. Personally, it doesn’t make a lot of sense to me as it has been stated so far, but I can think of it as possible, as a theory. One thing that I think needs to be entirely clear is that there is no clear DOCTRINE on the matter. President McKay said that the priesthood restriction was a policy, not a doctrine. So be careful when you say that there is “doctrine in this book,” because that’s not true, at least not from an official stand point. The Church has been clear about that regarding the priesthood issue. Both Elder McConkie and Elder Oaks have made statements that we need to forget about what has been said about the issue by past leaders and that we don’t know why the restriction was implemented. There has been no revelation from the proper channels stating anything about why it was implemented or even that it should have been. The only official revelation received by the Church concerning the matter was that it needed to be repealed. Brother Hamilton can speculate and theorize, and it may be true or false, but he is in no way in a position to declare Church doctrine, and I think he would be the first person to tell you that.

    The restriction didn’t exist in Joseph Smith’s day, and President Young never delivered any sort of revelation on it when he implemented it during a time of great racism in this country, based on what I consider to be an apostate sectarian idea at the time. That’s personally why I believe the evidence points to it being a cultural creation, especially with the scriptures (the Book of Mormon in particular) being so emphatic about the equality of all men and women, “black and white, bond and free, male and female.” The restriction doesn’t point to equality in my mind. So I personally reject it, like I believe the Church eventually did, because it does not fit with my idea of a loving Heavenly Father and Heavenly Mother.

    Do I feel equally passionate and inspired about my position as you do about Keith Hamilton’s? Of course I do, or I would struggle more about the issue until I felt at peace about it. Does it make it doctrine, or does it make anyone else beholden to my views? Of course not. I do not in any way speak for the Church and its teachings, and since the Church has been pretty quiet about the matter since the revelation, I feel free to keep believing as I do, until another revelation comes from the prophets, whose right it is to reveal doctrine if and when it comes from Heaven. There’s no revelation in the Doctrine and Covenants that absolutely confirms or denies either my or your views concerning this matter, which leaves it in the “yet to be revealed” category. When it really comes down to it, I think the details of the matter will surprise all of us when we finally understand it in its true and complete context.

    We all have to pray and deal with this issue in our own way. Mine has led me to a different conclusion than yours. And, in my book, that’s fine. I think there is plenty of room in the Church for diversity of thought, especially when there is no clear cut revelation concerning the matter.

  8. Where is there any documentation on Isaac Van Meter? There is nothing in Woodruff’s Journals. I see lots of people referencing him, but no sources. Thanks.

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